VOV.VN – Human history has produced hundreds of different empires, of which 5 most powerful stand out in general.
Of all the empires that have emerged and prospered on this Earth, which are the 5 most powerful? How can we choose five empires from the hundreds of empires that have ruled over the past 5,000 years? Any phrase about the “5 most powerful empires” always involves a subjective factor, as all empires have a time of glory and influence in their own way.
But judging by many criteria, there are a number of empires that stand out because they are very strong, big, and influential across a wide range of history that deserve to be called the greatest.
Akhilesh Pillalamarri in National Interest magazine (USA) selected 5 of these empires. Pillalamarri excluded China and India from this “top 5 empires”, because according to the author, the influence of the Chinese and Indian empires is only at the regional level:
Premier Empire perse
L’Empire perse de la dynastie achéménide a été fondé par Cyrus le Grand vers 550 av. Ce roi avait le titre de roi des rois (Shahanshah). Bien que l’Empire perse ait pris fin tragiquement aux mains d’Alexandre le Grand (du Royaume de Macédoine) en 330 avant JC, il a laissé un héritage durable pour le développement ultérieur des civilisations, des mondes et des futurs empires. L’empire perse est un empire clé de l’histoire humaine, car c’est le premier véritable empire – il a établi les normes de ce que devraient être les futurs empires.
L’empire perse susmentionné existait à un moment unique de l’histoire, lorsque la majeure partie du monde civilisé habité était concentrée au Moyen-Orient ou à proximité du Moyen-Orient. En conséquence, l’empire perse, alors qu’il dominait la majeure partie du Moyen-Orient à cette époque, dirigeait simultanément une plus grande proportion de la population mondiale que tout autre dans l’histoire. Plus précisément, en 480 avant JC, cet empire avait une population d’environ 49,4 millions d’habitants, soit 44% de la population totale du monde à cette époque.
L’Empire perse a été le premier à connecter de nombreuses régions du monde, notamment le Moyen-Orient, l’Afrique du Nord, l’Asie centrale, l’Inde, l’Europe et la région méditerranéenne. Cet empire a initié le concept d’empire dans des endroits comme la Grèce et l’Inde.
Un si grand empire ne peut être assemblé que grâce à sa puissance militaire. Les réalisations militaires de l’Empire perse étaient remarquables, bien qu’elles aient souvent été oubliées en raison de sa défaite soudaine par les armées d’Alexandre le Grand. Diverses campagnes perses ont conquis bon nombre des civilisations les plus avancées du monde à l’époque, telles que Babylone, Lydian, l’Égypte et la région hindoue de Gandhara dans le Pakistan actuel.
En excluant les facteurs d’exagération et de mauvaise interprétation, les Perses croient toujours qu’ils ont atteint leurs objectifs en Grèce et que plus de Grecs vivaient dans l’Empire perse qu’à l’extérieur. L’empire perse a inauguré une période de paix et d’harmonie au Moyen-Orient pendant 200 ans – un exploit rarement répété.
En termes de concept d’empire, l’héritage de l’Empire perse au monde comprenait l’utilisation d’un réseau routier, le système postal, une langue administrative unifiée (l’araméen utilisé dans tout l’empire. Un régime), un régime autonome pour les minorités ethniques, et une bureaucratie. Les religions persanes – la religion du feu – ont influencé le développement de concepts clés tels que le libre arbitre, le paradis et l’enfer dans les religions d’Abraham au judaïsme.
This empire is clearly influential. The Roman Empire has long been the iconic elite empire of the Western world. But its importance is not attributed to it by the West: the Roman Empire was indeed one of the greatest in human history. The Romans have shown a terrifying ability to conquer and hold an extremely large territory for hundreds, if not thousands of years, including the Eastern Roman Empire. Byzantine institutions). It is noteworthy that this empire was consolidated not only by brute force. Once conquered, the inhabitants of this empire aspired to become Roman – it meant participating in a classical and elegant culture.
The modern world has several characteristics inherited from the Roman Empire. The Romans took over and promoted the indigenous culture of Greece, passed down to generations after Greek architecture, philosophy and science. The Romans, after Christianity, elevated this religion from a small denomination to one of the major religions of the world.
Roman law also influenced all subsequent legal systems in the Western world. Roman institutions also inspired the systems of government of many modern nations. Although Greece is famous for being the “cradle of democracy,” America’s founders were largely influenced by British and Roman practice. In fact, many of them have often expressed their aversion to the Athens experience, while admiring the mixed Roman form of government among monarchs, aristocrats, and democracy. The American system of trilateral separatist politics was closely linked to the institutional division of Rome. When the Roman Republic evolved into the Roman Empire, Caesar’s ideas and authority inspired later rulers.
The Romans are a resilient people. They have the ability to recover from countless setbacks, regroup and defeat their enemies. Although Carthage General Hannibal almost completely destroyed Rome after the Battle of Cannes in 216 BC, the Romans were eventually able to send an army to Carthage to defeat the city at age 14 the following year. Militarily, the Roman legions ruled for centuries, helping Rome to dominate almost all other civilized peoples in the Mediterranean and the Near East (except the Persian Empire) for hundreds of years, and n ‘ faced only a few small raids from poorly organized tribes.
The fall of the Roman Empire was due more to internal crisis and civil war than to German tribal conquest. The Eastern Roman Empire lasted until 1453, giving the political history of the Roman state a longevity of up to two millennia.
Kingdom of the caliphate
The Arab Empire, also known as the Caliphate, was a political institution founded by the Muslim prophet Muhammad. This empire included most of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of Muhammad’s death in 632. Calling it the Arab Empire would more rightly call it the Islamic Empire, because if Islam was born and grew widespread. by Muslims but not Arabs.
Muhammad was replaced by four caliphs chosen by consensus until 661. Subsequently, the Umayyad caliphate continued to rule until 750, followed by the Abbasid caliphate, despite the conquests.
The Arab Empire essentially ceased to exist around 900, although the Abbasid dynasty maintained its religious role of caliphs in Baghdad until the city was destroyed by the Mongols in 1258. After 900, the empire disintegrated. politically, with the rise of many rival dynasties, including many opponents of Turkish and Persian descent, as well as rival caliphates in Spain and Egypt.
However, in its day, the Arab Empire was still extraordinary, with its victories and its legacy. Certainly, a loosely organized tribal people on the fringes of world civilization could defeat the Byzantine Empire and overthrow Sassanid Persia – both of which were populated. The numbers and resources are overwhelming compared to the Arabian Desert.
The Arab conquests are a prime example of how ideological enthusiasm can compensate for technological and organizational weakness. The Arab generals of this period deserve to be ranked among the greatest military geniuses in the world, especially the 3rd Caliph, Omar, who conquered the region from Egypt to Persia in 10 years. In 100 years, the Arab Empire had grown to a scale several times greater than that of the Roman Empire at its height.
Thanks to its position, the Arab Empire, as well as the former Persian Empire, connected the centers of world civilization in Africa, Europe, Central Asia, India and China. Results, first goods and knowledge from all regions
These are the same characteristics that helped the British Empire develop, prosper, and keep the territory under its control. Moreover, his example has been widely learned, whether for the financial or naval might of the empire.
At its peak in the 20th century, the British Empire covered a quarter of the world – the largest empire (by area) in history. This was achieved in large part thanks to the organizational and financial successes of England and then to the role of a large army. For example, the British conquest of India was primarily conducted by Indian soldiers who received British salaries and benefits to serve England. London also showed an excellent ability to handle multiple battles at the same time. The British rarely lose the battle.
So how does the United States of America compare to these giants? The United States is arguably the most powerful nation in the world today militarily. America combines British commercial talent with continental liberalism and resources. Like the Romans, Americans have a fascinating culture. Like the Mongols, the United States could unleash devastating blows. Like the Arabs, the United States has spread a universal ideology around the world. Like the Persian Empire, the United States combines different cultures and connected regions.
For all these reasons, America has a long future ahead of it as a great power. Yet America must remember the lessons of old empires if it is not to repeat their mistakes.
Despite a powerful army, Rome has always fallen. Internal divisions and clashes can destroy even the most powerful empires. The Persians were conquered not because they were weak, but because their leadership had failed. Although the Mongols won the war, they couldn’t win in peacetime and ultimately couldn’t maintain their rule anywhere. The Arabs created a brilliant civilization, but the newcomers absorbed their positive aspects and pushed them down. Ultimately, the British were exhausted from doing a lot of things at once, trying to defend their interests, the world order and the European system …